– The total number of London Hookers is not known and is difficult to assess, but authorities and NGOs estimate that approximately 100,000 persons in the country are engaged in prostitution. According to data from the Office for National Statistics, prostitution contributed £5.3 billion to the UK economy in 2009.The sex trade takes different forms, such as prostitution practiced in massage parlors, saunas, private flats, street prostitution and London Hookers. The size of brothels in the UK is often small; Cari Mitchell, speaking for the English Collective of Prostitutes in 2008, said that “most brothels are discreetly run by two or three women, sometimes with a receptionist, or one woman, usually an ex-sex worker who employs two or three others”.By 2015 approximately 70% of sex workers were indoor workers.In the late 2000s, a study compiled by the Poppy Project found brothels in all 33 London local authority areas. Westminster had the highest number with 71, compared with 8 in Southwark. For this study the researchers had posed as potential customers and had telephoned 921 brothels that had advertised in local newspapers. The researchers estimated that the brothels generated between £50m and £130m a year. Many brothels operated through legitimate businesses – licenced as saunas or massage parlours – though the vast majority were in private flats in residential areas. The report found 77 different ethnicities among the prostitutes, many from areas such as Eastern Europe and South-East Asia. The study has been called “the most comprehensive study ever conducted into UK brothels” but its methodology has been criticized, and it has been rejected by sex workers’ activists and academic studies.According to a 2009 study by, of all prostitutes in the UK, 41% were foreigners – however in London this percentage was 80%. The total number of migrant prostitutes was significantly lower than in other Western countries (such as Spain and Italy where the percentage of all migrant prostitutes was 90%). The migrant prostitutes came from: Central Europe 43%, Baltic 10%, Eastern Europe, Balkans 4%, other EU countries 16%, Latin America 10%, Asia, 7%, Africa 2%, North America 1%. 35 different countries of origin were identified.Surveys indicate that fewer British men use prostitutes than in other countries. Estimates of between 7% (1991 data) and 11% (2010-2012 data) of men have used London Hookers at least once in the UK, compared to 15%-20% in the USA or 16% in France. The authors stress the difficulty of finding reliable data given the lack of prior research, differences in sample sizes, and possible underestimates due to the privacy concerns of survey respondents.A 2004 survey of street-based sex workers found that the average age of entry into prostitution was 21. In March 2105 the University of Leeds, funded by the Wellcome Trust, published one of largest ever UK surveys of prostitutes. It found that 71% of prostitutes had previously worked in health, social care, education, childcare or charities, and that 38% held an undergraduate degree. A study published by Swansea University in March 2015 found that nearly 5% of UK students had been involved sex work in some capacity, including prostitution. Most students go into sex work to cover living expenses (two-thirds) and pay off debts.Bullough argues that prostitution in 18th century Britain was a convenience to men of all social statuses, and an economic necessity for many poor women, and was tolerated by society. However, a ban on brothel-keeping was included in the Disorderly Houses Act 1751 as part of legislation against public nuisance. The evangelical movement of the 19th century denounced prostitutes and their clients as sinners, and denounced society for tolerating it.The Vagrancy Act 1824 was passed, introducing the term “common prostitute” into English Law and criminalising prostitutes with a punishment of up to one month hard labour.The act also made it a crime for a man to live on the earnings of a prostitute often known as living off immoral earnings. According to the values of the Victorian middle class, prostitution was a horrible evil, for the young women, for the men and for all of society. The introduction of the Town Police Clauses Act 1847 made it an offence for common London Hookers to assemble at any “place of public resort” such as a coffee shop.For several reasons prostitution was predominantly a working class profession. For many working class women their journey into prostitution was one of circumstance. During the 19th century the public began to concern itself with particular social problems, an increasing view of the “ideal woman” was beginning to emerge and the “angel of the home” was becoming a popular stereotype. This rise of the middle class domestic morality made it increasingly harder for women to obtain work in certain professions, causing an increase in such areas as needle-trades, shop girls, agricultural gangs, factory work, and domestic servants all occupations with long hours and little pay. Low earnings, it is argued, meant that women had to resort to prostitution to be able to provide for themselves and their families, particularly in households where the main breadwinner was no longer around. The figures below, however, show this to be untrue. A study from the late Victorian period showed that more than 90 per cent of prostitutes in Millbank prison were the daughters of “unskilled and semiskilled working men”, more than 50 per cent of whom had been servants, the rest having worked in dead-end jobs such as laundering, charring and street selling.The level of prostitution was high in Victorian England, but the nature of the occupation makes it difficult to establish the exact number of prostitutes in operation. Judicial reports of the years 1857 to 1869 show that prostitutes were more common in commercial ports and pleasure resorts and less so in hardware towns, cotton and linen manufacturing centres and woollen and worsted centres. The Westminster Review placed the figure between 50,000 and 368,000. This would make prostitution the fourth-largest female occupation. However, the police estimates of known prostitutes portray an entirely different estimate.However, this table relates only prostitutes known to the police. The unreliability of statistics during the 19th century prevents one from knowing if prostitution was increasing or decreasing during this period, but it is clear that Victorians during the 1840s and 1850s thought that prostitution and venereal disease were increasing.London Hookers found work within the armed forces, mainly due to servicemen’s forced celibacy and the conditions of the barracks the men were forced to endure.The barracks were overcrowded and had a lack of ventilation and defective sanitation. Very few servicemen were permitted to marry, and even those were not given an allowance to support their wives, which occasionally lured them to become prostitutes as well.Regulating prostitution was the government’s attempt to control the high level of venereal disease in its armed forces. By 1864, one out of three sick cases in the army was caused by venereal disease; admissions into hospitals for gonorrhoea and syphilis reached 290.7 per 1,000 of total troop strength.The Contagious Diseases Acts were introduced in the 1860s, adopting the French system of licenced prostitution, with the goal of minimising venereal disease. Prostitutes were subjected to compulsory checks for venereal disease, and imprisonment until cured. Young women officially became prostitutes and were trapped for life in the system. After a nationwide crusade led by Josephine Butler, legalised prostitution was stopped in 1886 and Butler became a sort of saviour to the girls she helped free. The Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 made numerous changes that affected prostitution, including criminalising the act of procuring girls for prostitution by administering drugs or intimidation or fraud, suppressing brothels and raising the age of consent for young women from 12 to 16.This last provision undercut the supply of young prostitutes who were in highest demand. The new moral code meant that respectable men dared not be caught.n the second half of the 20th century attempts were made to reduce prostitution. The Sexual Offences Act 1956 included sections making brothel-keeping an offence. The Street Offences Act 1959 added new restrictions to reduce street prostitution, stating: “It shall be an offence for a common prostitute to loiter or solicit in a street or public place for the purpose of prostitution. “As a result, many prostitutes left the street for fear of imprisonment. The penalty for living off immoral earnings was increased to a maximum of seven years’ imprisonment. The Sexual Offences Act 1985 created two new offences which criminalised acts performed by prostitutes’ clients. These were kerb crawling and persistently soliciting women for the purposes of London Hookers.An increase in the number of prostitutes originating from overseas in the 21st century led to concerns regarding allegations of human trafficking and forced prostitution. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 included sections making sex trafficking a specific offence. A Home Office review Paying the Price was carried out in 2004. It focused on projects to divert women from entering prostitution, and to engage with those already trapped to help them exit. A second Home Office review Tackling the demand for prostitution (2008) proposed the development of a new offence to criminalise those who pay for sex with a person who is being controlled against their wishes for someone else’s gain.This approach to prostitution began to make legislative progress in 2008, as Home Secretary Jacqui Smith announced that paying for sex from a London Hookers under the control of a pimp would become a criminal offence. Clients could also face rape charges for knowingly paying for sex from an illegally trafficked woman, and first-time offenders could face charges. The Policing and Crime Act 2009 made it an offence to pay for the services of a prostitute “subjected to force” and made other provisions in relation to London Hookers.Although previous acts still remain in force, the Policing and Crime Act 2009 (together with the Sexual Offences Act 2003) replaced most aspects of previous legislation relating to prostitution. An important change resulting from the 2009 act was the amendment of the laws on soliciting and loitering for the purposes of prostitution. The main differences involve the shifting of focus from the prostitutes to the customers. Before 1 April 2010, it was illegal for a customer to kerb crawl/solicit only if this was done “persistently”, or “in a manner likely to cause annoyance”. Today, all forms of public solicitation by a customer are illegal, regardless of the manner in which the prostitute was solicited. The act also makes it an offence for someone to pay or promise to pay a prostitute who has been subject to “exploitive conduct”. The law now applies to male as well as female prostitutes because the term “common prostitute” has been replaced with “person”. Before 1 April 2010, a prostitute was committing a crime by soliciting in a public place more than once in a period of one month. Today, he/she commits a crime if he/she does it more than once in a period of three months.Street London Hookers is illegal. It is an offence to loiter or solicit persistently in a street or public place for the purpose of offering one’s services as a prostitute. The term “prostitute” is defined as someone who has offered or provided sexual services to another person in return for a financial arrangement on at least one previous occasion. To demonstrate “persistence” under the current legislation, two police officers must witness the activity and administer a non-statutory London Hookers caution. This caution differs from an ordinary police caution in that the behaviour leading to a caution need not itself be evidence of a criminal offence. There is no requirement for a man or woman to admit guilt before being given a prostitutes caution and there is no right of appeal. Working as a prostitute in private is not an offence, and neither is working as an outcall escort. Nor is it illegal for prostitutes to sell sex at a brothel provided they are not involved in management or control of the brothel.Soliciting someone for the purpose of obtaining their sexual services as a prostitute is an offence if the soliciting takes place in a street or public place (whether in a vehicle or not). This is a broader restriction than the 1985 ban on kerb-crawling. It is now also an offence to make or promise payment for the sexual services of a prostitute if the prostitute has been subjected to “exploitative conduct” (force, threats or deception) in order to bring about such an arrangement for gain. This is a strict liability offence clients can be prosecuted even if they didn’t know the prostitute was forced.Additionally there exists an offence of paying for sexual services of a child (anyone under 18).There are various third party offences relating to prostitution. For instance, causing or inciting another person to become a prostitute for gain is an offence.Pimping (controlling the activities of another person relating to that person’s prostitution for gain) is also illegal.Similarly brothelkeeping is illegal. It is an offence for a person to keep, or to manage, or act or assist in the management of, a brothel.Note that the definition of a brothel in English law is “a place where people are allowed to resort for illicit intercourse”. It is not necessary that the premises are used for the purposes of prostitution since a brothel exists wherever more than one person offers sexual intercourse, whether for payment or not. Thus the prohibition on brothels covers premises where people go for non-commercial sexual encounters, such as certain saunas and adult clubs. However, premises which are frequented by men for intercourse with only one woman are not a brothel,and this is so whether she is a tenant or not.Thus in practice to avoid committing this offence a London Hookers who works in private must work alone. Additionally there exists an offence of causing, inciting, controlling, arranging or facilitating child prostitution.Advertising for the services of prostitutes is usually expressed in euphemistic language, partly as an attempt to avoid prosecution and partly as an expression of British cultural values. London Hookers advertise in contact magazines despite a common law offence of “conspiracy to corrupt public morals” which was created in 1962 to prohibit such advertising.Adverts for prostitutes are also placed in public telephone boxes (where they are known as tart cards) despite the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001 making such advertising an offence. Adverts are also placed in newspapers, which is not in itself illegal. However, a newspaper which carries advertising for illegal establishments and activities such as brothels or venues where sexual services are offered illegally may be liable to prosecution for money laundering offences under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002. This is the case even if such places are advertised under the guise of massage parlours and saunas. Some police forces have local policies in place for enforcement against prostitution services advertised in the local press. Newspaper companies sometimes adopt a policy of refusing all advertisements for personal services.More recently, social media have become a common way to attract clients.A private member’s bill to prohibit the advertising of prostitution, the Advertising of Prostitution (Prohibition) Bill 2015-16, was introduced by Lord McColl of Dulwich in the House of Lords in June 2015.